Harvard Referencing System – What is it?

When writing a university level assignment, it is common practice for students to use the pre-researched and studied material from sources that have already been published. This is unavoidable as students need to use existing studies to either support their findings or oppose them. The Harvard referencing system is a method that allows students to cite others’ work and use it in their own assignments without breaching any intellectual property laws. The method refers to the particular way the work and author is credited. This style of referencing is very common and is commonly found in assignments about natural, social and behavioral sciences.




There are two parts to the Harvard Referencing System which are:

  • In-text citation: Whenever a writer uses another source in their material, the surname of the author of that source and the year of publication needs to be shown in brackets.
  • Reference list: This is a list at the end of the document which lists all the sources, along with the relevant details, used in the work.

“How can a Harvard Reference Generator help me?”

A Harvard Referencing Generator is a tool that automatically generates formatted academic references in the Harvard style. The student needs to input the details into the generator, such as the author’s name(s), article title, publication dates and URLs. The generator then formats all the information into the proper format according to the Harvard style.

This is an incredibly helpful tool for university students. It allows students to keep track of the sources they referenced in their assignment. Additionally, it makes sure that the references are formatted correctly and in line with the requirements of the Harvard style. It eliminates any errors and saves a ton of time as well for students who are almost always in a hurry.

When should referencing be used? What is the proper format? Is it necessary?

Referencing is absolutely necessary to provide a reference every time a study is used or quoted in an assignment. Referencing allows one to use another’s study to their advantage without infringing any copyrights. If referencing is not provided then there could be a case of copyright infringement along with the sources used being deemed as plagiarism. This can have a major negative impact on the student’s image and assignment and might even cause them or their assignment to be disqualified or not accepted.

What is the correct format for in-text citation following the Harvard format?

While the Harvard Referencing style is a particular format in its own, it is also an umbrella term for other formats that use the author’s name and year of publication within the text to indicate where a source has been inserted.

The format of in-text citation according to the Harvard style is as follows:

  • The author’s surname and date of publication is written in brackets when information is taken from a source. The details of the author and date of publishing are written within the text.
  • If the author is referred to in the text then the date of publication should follow in brackets after their names have been stated.
  • If a passage has been directly quoted then it is preferable to place quotation marks around the quote along with including the page number.

Harvard

Harvard style referencing for books:

The standard format for referencing a book in the Harvard format is as follows:

  • Author(s) surname.
  • Initials
  • Year of publication
  • Title
  • Publisher
  • Place of publication.

Although this is the standard format which is supposed to be followed, there can be variations depending upon how many authors are credited for writing the book.

For one author:

Material Type

In-text example

Reference List Example

Book: Single Author

(Williams 1997) or Williams (1997)

Holt, DH 1997, Management principles and practices, Prentice-Hall, Sydney.

 

For two or three authors:

Book: Two to Three Authors

In-text example

Reference List Example

 

(Johnson, William & Irwin 1997)

Johnson, EJ, William, DP & Irwin, GQ  1997, Basicmarketing, Lopez, Sydney.

 

For four or more authors:

Book: 4 or more authors

In-text example

Reference List Example

 

(Bond et al. 1996)

Bond, WR, Smith, JT, Brown, KL & George, M 1996, Management of small firms, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.

 

Harvard style referencing for Journal articles:

The standard format for referencing a journal article in the Harvard format is as follows:

  • Author(s) surname.
  • Initials
  • Year of publication
  • Title
  • Publisher
  • Place of publication.

Important things to note include:

  1. If there are multiple authors of a journal then the same format is followed which is used for books.
  2. It is necessary to differentiate between the title of the article and the title of the journal and prevent them from getting mixed up.
  3. The citation should include the access date and details of the database in which the journal appears online.

For journal articles available in print:

Material Type

In-text example

Reference List Example

Journal article: print

(Wayne & Robertson 1998)

Johnson, EJ, William, DP & Irwin, GQ  1997, Basicmarketing, Lopez, Sydney.

 

For journal articles available online:

Material Type

In-text example

Reference List Example

Journal article: electronic database

(Watson 2011)

 

Liveris, A 2011, ‘Ethics as a strategy’, Leadership Excellence, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 17-18. Available from: ProQuest. [13 October 2015].

 

For journals articles with 2 to 3 authors:

Material Type

In-text example

Reference List Example

Journal article: 2 or 3 authors

(Holmes & James 2002)

Thomas, K & Bosch, B 2005, ‘An exploration of the impact of chronic fatigue syndrome and implications for psychological service provision’, E-Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 23-40. Available from: http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap/article/download/4/13. [01 February 2017].

 

For journals articles with 4 or more authors:

Material Type

In-text example

Reference List Example

Journal article: 4 or more authors

(Hernandez et al. 2014)

Hernandez, SC, Alexis, M, James, HL & Anthony, J 2014, ‘Two objects or one? Similarity rather than complexity determines objecthood when resolving dynamic input’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, vol. 41, no.1, pp. 102-110. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xhp0000022.

 

 [14 September 2018].

 

For journals articles that available only online with the volume and issue number available:

Material Type

In-text example

Reference List Example

Journal article: online only journal (volume & issue number available)

(Perez & Walker 2011)

Perez, M & Walker, C 2011, ‘Bribery: what do Australian managers know and what do they do?’, Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 15- 29. Available from: http://jbsge.vu.edu.au/article/view/206. [20 October 2014].

 

For journal articles that are available online without the volume and issue number:

Material Type

In-text example

Reference List Example

Journal article: online only journal (no volume & issue numbers, no page numbers)

(Clark 2014, ‘Public library of Cincinnati’, para. 4).

For direct quotes etc, provide a section heading and/or paragraph number, if there are no page numbers

Clark, K 2014, ‘Libraries welcome writers in residence’, Library Journal. Available from: http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2014/09/industry-news/libraries-welcome-writers-in-residence/. [29 September 2014].

The Harvard referencing style is a referencing and citation format that is particular and specific in its requirements. There are miniscule details that must be followed. Those attempting to reference and cite their sources in the Harvard format need to be patient and have laser focus in order to avoid making mistakes. However, the Harvard format is very complicated and mistakes tend to be unavoidable. If you need an idea to understand the basics of the Harvard citation format then you can use our guide for that. If you feel like it is too complicated for you to do yourself then we offer services where we will cite and reference your sources for you in the appropriate format. If you want to avail our services then you can place your order on our page. We also have live chat available 24/7 if you have any questions you need answered before you place your order.